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Pregnancy Brain ..... 3

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Pregnancy Brain ..... 3





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Pregnancy Brain ..... 3
Posted on 26th June 2018

Clearly, there are many possible concerns that can crowd out a woman's brain during pregnancy, and these thoughts may make it difficult to remember certain things. And if there is a neurological explanation, it might simply be part of the way the body reallocates some resources to the development of parenting skills — shifts that are part of a normal, healthy pregnancy, Pawluski said. What's important, she added, is that even if there's not a strong scientific explanation for why your brain feels foggier, that doesn't mean your experience isn't valid or real. "If you think you're forgetting a lot, but I tell you you're not, that can cause a lot of anxiety," Pawluski said. So, go ahead — acknowledge that you might need a little more help remembering appointments and other things while you're …

Pregnancy Brain....2

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Pregnancy Brain....2




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Pregnancy Brain....2
Posted on 26th June 2018

There have been some studies, however, that have assessed the memory skills of pregnant women. In 2008, research out of Australia found that pregnant women performed just as well on memory tasks in the lab as nonpregnant women did, but the pregnant women didn't do as well on similar tasks at home. As the researchers told The Guardian that year, these results made the team think that some of a mother’s forgetfulness could be due to the drastic schedule and life adjustments pregnancy creates. To Marci Lobel, a psychologist who focuses on pregnancy at Stony Brook University in New York, these social explanations for "pregnancy brain" make sense. "I'm always wary about pathologizing women's health experiences, and attributing weaknesses (such as 'forgetting') to pregnancy itself when in all likelihood, they&…

Pregnancy Brain ..1

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Pregnancy Brain ..1



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Pregnancy Brain ..1
Posted on 26th June 2018

Though pregnant women may notice changes in their memory, there's a host of other behavioral adaptions going on that may not be as obvious, such as increased awareness of potential threats. Indeed, pregnancy (and early postpartum) causes huge changes in a mother’s brain. "It is the time in your life [that your brain] is most plastic during adulthood," said Jodi Pawluski, a research associate who studies maternal mental health at the University of Rennes 1 in France. Raising a child and being attuned to their needs requires a parent's brain to forge new neurological connections that support these unfamiliar responsibilities, Pawluski told Live Science. Those changes stick around, too — a 2016 study published in the journal Nature used MRI scans to show that a specific pattern of gray matter, or brain cells, changes in pregn…

Birth defects.... Parasite infections risk to Pregnant

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Birth defects.... Parasite infections risk to Pregnant



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Birth defects.... Parasite infections risk to Pregnant
Posted in 2013

Parasitic infection(s) during pregnancy have been associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse outcomes in low resource settings. However, little is known about their influence on pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections and their association with pregnancy complications and adverse outcomes.

A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using maternally-linked data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC) medical birth registry. Birth records from all women who delivered singleton infants from 2000–2011 were utilized. We excluded multiple gestations and rural medical referral for various medical complications. A total of 30,797 births were evaluated. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version …

Birth defects .... Parasites infections

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Birth defects .... Parasites infections



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Birth defects .... Parasites infections
Posted in 2013

Although parasitic infections are common throughout the world, most clinicians are inexperienced in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Clinicians increasingly are confronted with parasitic infections, such as malaria, schistosomiasis, and trypanosomiasis, because of the increase in international travel and the recent immigration of persons from Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Many parasitic infections may be encountered in tropical areas, and the effect of these diseases on less developed countries is staggering. Malaria, schistosomiasis, and filariasis affect 600 million people.1 With an average of 5 million trips abroad each year, the probability that an American traveler may contract a parasitic infection is high. If infection occurs before or during pregnancy, the e…

Birth defects...Parasite from Cats

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Birth defects...Parasite from Cats





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Birth defects...Parasite from Cats
Posted in 2013

The domestic cat and the rise of agriculture have spread a parasite that causes devastating birth defects in humans, according to a study published yesterday. More than a quarter of the world's population is now infected with toxoplasma gondii, a relative of the malaria bug. Infected people with weakened immunity often develop acute toxoplasmosis, which can lead to birth defects, brain inflammation and vision problems. It has also been suggested that the parasite, which invades the brain, may influence behaviour and trigger schizophrenia. An Anglo-American team reported yesterday in the journal Science how the organism came to infest almost all animals.
Although it can sexually reproduce only in cats, the creature mutated so it could asexually reproduce in a vast range of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Dr Davi…

What are antibiotics?

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What are  antibiotics?




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What are antibiotics?
Posted in 2015

What are anitibiotics?
The US National Library of Medicine1 says that antibiotics - powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections - can save lives when used properly. Antibiotics either stop bacteria from reproducing or kill them. "Your body's natural defenses can usually take it from there."
Before bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms, the body's immune system can usually destroy them. We have special white blood cells that attack harmful bacteria. Even if symptoms do occur, our immune system can usually cope and fight off the infection. There are occasions, however, when it is all too much and some help is needed.....from antibiotics.
The first antibiotic was penicillin. Such penicillin-related antibiotics as ampicillin, amoxicillin and benzylpenicilllin are widely used today to treat a variety of infections - these ant…

Birth defects .... Metabolic diseases .. Kidney 3

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Birth defects .... Metabolic diseases .. Kidney  3




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Birth defects .... Metabolic diseases .. Kidney 3
Posted in 2013


Oxalosis is another rare disease.   In this disease the liver cells lack an enzyme (an active protein)
that breaks down oxalate, which is a compound made in the natural functioning of the liver cell.
Oxalate then accumulates, spills into blood, links with calcium, and calcium oxalate deposits in 
the kidney and then in tissues all over the body. The kidney is first, since the kidney tries to get
rid of the excess calcium oxalate out of the blood by filtering it out, and in the process the kidney 
is stopped up with calcium oxalate,    Deposits of crystals are found throughout the kidney and
stones form also.   When there is little or no enzyme in the liver to break down oxalate, the
problems ensue quickly in infancy and complete kidney failure can be seen in the first year of life.
If there is some enz…

Birth defects .... Metabolic diseases .. Kidney 2

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Birth defects .... Metabolic diseases .. Kidney 2



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Birth defects .... Metabolic diseases .. Kidney 2
Posted in 2013

The condition where the kidney tubules leak potassium, glucose (sugar), phosphorus, bicarbonate,
and amino acids into the urine is called Fanconi syndrome.   Fanconi syndrome is seen in children
with cystinosis, Lowe's syndrome, and is rarely seen temporarily after administration of an antibiotic
from the antibiotic grown called aminoglycosides


My advise
1....  Eat fresh vegetables and fruits
2...   Drink sufficient water

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Birth defects .... Metabolic diseases .. Kidney 1

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Birth defects .... Metabolic diseases .. Kidney 1





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Birth defects .... Metabolic diseases .. Kidney 1
Posted in 2013

Metabolic diseases are those diseases where there is a chemical problem in certain or all cells
of the body.  Most commonly they happen when an enzyme (protein that breaks down a specific
chemical) is missing.  That can result in the accumulation of that substance in cells, causing all
sorts of problems.    In some types of metabolic disease a substance accumulates in cells for
unknown reasons.   In others, an important cellular biochemical process is abnormal. Cystinosis is a rare disease where cysteine, an amino acid (amino acids are the building blocks of
proteins) accumulates in the cells of the body and causes lots of problems, including kidney failure. 
These children clearly are ill as infants, since they grow poorly, are easily and frequently dehydrated,
and develop rickets.   The problem wit…

Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 5

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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 5




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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 5
Posted in 2013


Another very rare form of bilateral renal cystic disease isglomerulocystic disease, where the cysts
are in the glomeruli, the filters of the kidneys.   This usually leads to kidney failure early in life. Other diseases which include bilateral (both kidneys) cystic kidney disease in addition to other 
health problems include: * Tuberous sclerosis
*  Von Hippel Lindau syndrome.
I am telling U if you develop positive thinking and follow healthy habits you can have Healthy and Brilliant child. I wish it.
My advise 1....  Practice Positive thinking
2....  Follow Healthy habits



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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 4

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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 4



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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 4
Posted in in 2013


ADPKD is a fairly common cause of kidney failure in adults.    The cysts of the disease may be seen
on a prenatal ultrasound of the developing fetus, but in most cases, the number of cysts in the
kidneys increases slowly and kidney function is normal for most or all of childhood and
into adulthood.   The cysts can start to form in the kidneys in the fetus, or the kidneys may be
normal without cysts until as late as 30 years of age.    At some age cysts start to form and more
and more cysts progressively form in both kidneys.   There is a tendency of the pattern
of development of cysts to be the same in members of a family, but it is a tendency and not a rule.
As more and more cysts form often hypertension becomes a problem, and then after hypertension,
gradual decrease in kidney function.   The a…

Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 3

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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 3



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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 3
Posted in 2013


Most of the time when cystic kidney disease is mentioned, polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
comes to mind.   There are two types of polycystic kidney disease are:   autosomal
dominant disease (ADPKD), formerly called adult PKD, and autosomal recessive PKD.   
Let me give you a mini-genetics lesson to help explain the two diseases.    Each of us has
a set of genes from each parent, so we have a double of every gene.  In diseases where the
trait is dominant, getting an abnormal gene from either parent gives you the disease.   So in the
typical case of a parent with a dominant disease, the parent got one normal gene from one
parent who was healthy and an abnormal gene from a parent with the disease.      So the child 
of that parent has a 50-50 chance of getting the disease, depending on whether he got t…

Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 2

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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 2




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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 2
Posted in 2013


A multicystic dysplastic kidney is often picked up on prenatal ultrasound, then confirmed on
ultrasound after the baby is born.   Since the bags of cysts can be confused with severe
dilatation of the kidney related to a severe ureteropelvic junction obstruction, the doctor may
want to look at the kidneys with a nuclear renal scan to differentiate between the two.   To
do this scan, the infant is given an IV injection of a radioactive substance that shows blood
flow into the kidney and is filtered by the kidney.   The multicystic dysplastic kidney has no
blood flow and no function, but the kidney with obstruction has blood flowing through it.   The
amount of radioactivity given is no more than one receives getting a standard X-ray. So the infant felt to have a multicystic dysplastic kidney generally …

Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 1

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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 1




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Birth defects .... Cystic Diseases Kidney problem 1
Posted in 2013


Most of the cystic diseases occur in both kidneys, but in the great majority of cases a multicystic dysplastic kidney is confined to one kidney.    In this disorder, the kidney is worthless and without any functioning filters and the ureter is atretic, meaning that it stops part way down to the bladder, so is incomplete.    The "kidney", and I put it in parentheses
since it is not really a kidney, as we know it, since something went awry very early in its development and it became a group of cysts rather than a kidney.  A cyst is a fluid filled round bag-like structure.    In most cases the other kidney is normal and grows larger than a normal kidney to make up for the fact that there is only one functioning kidney.     Two
defects do occur in the functioning kidney with enough fr…

Birth defects .... Hydronephrosis without obstruction 3

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Birth defects .... Hydronephrosis without obstruction 3



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Birth defects .... Hydronephrosis without obstruction 3
Posted in 2013

Megaureter and megacystis are two problems that often occur together. Megaureter is the congenital dilatation of all or a portion of the ureter without obstruction.    Megacystis means enlargement of the bladder, which may affect function in that the bladder may be slow to empty, and in some cases this may mean that intermittent catheterization is needed to
empty the bladder.  Both megaureter and megacystis are frequently associated with renal dysplasia.


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1...  Follow healthy habits and avoid birth defects

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Birth defects .... Hydronephrosis without obstruction 2

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Birth defects .... Hydronephrosis without obstruction 2


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Birth defects .... Hydronephrosis without obstruction 2
Posted in 2013

Prune belly syndrome occurs almost exclusively in boys; there is a controversy whether there is a variant in girls.  It consists of a group of findings including:   decreased or absent abdominal muscles, cryptorchidism (failure of the testicles to descend into the scrotum;
they remain in the abdomen), and dilatation of the ureters and bladder, often with associated renal dysplasia.  Frequently the dilated ureters come with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR; see below).    The boys are sterile and unable to make sperm, even if the testicles are surgically
brought down, but they function normally sexually.  The bladder may be large and floppy and not contract and empty like it should, or it may be fine.  High-grade reflux is common, but reimplantation of the ureters surgically into the large, f…

Birth defects .... Hydronephrosis without obstruction 1

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Birth defects .... Hydronephrosis without obstruction 1




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Birth defects .... Hydronephrosis without obstruction 1
Posted in 2013

Hydronephrosis without obstruction means dilatation of the ureter and collecting system of
the kidney but not because of backup above an area of narrowing and obstruction, rather
primary dilatation of the collecting system and ureter.  The conditions causing this that I will
discuss are: * Prune belly syndrome
* Vesicoureteral reflux
* Primary megaureter with or without megacystis

My advise
1.... Follow healthy habits to have Healthy child

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Birth defects .... Obstruction of Urinary tract 5

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Birth defects ....  Obstruction of Urinary tract 5



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Birth defects ....  Obstruction of Urinary tract 5
Posted in 2013


Ureterovesical (UVJ) obstruction is much less frequent than is UPJ obstruction, and like UPJ
obstruction, can be unilateral or bilateral.    It is an abnormality in the insertion of the ureter
into the bladder, blocking the flow of the urine into the bladder, and is fixed by surgically
reinserting the ureter into the bladder, the same as is done for vesicoureteral reflux (see
hydronephrosis without obstruction). A ureterocele is a cystic dilatation of the ureter as it inserts into the bladder.  The cystic
area "pouches" into the bladder and causes the opening for urine flow from the ureter into
the bladder to be very constricted, resulting in obstruction and hydronephrosis.     It can
often be handled at cystoscopy, with excision of the abnormal tissue with a small knife
passed through the cy…

Birth defects .... Obstruction of Urinary tract 4

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Birth defects ....  Obstruction of Urinary tract 4






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Birth defects ....  Obstruction of Urinary tract 1
Posted in 2013


Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is caused by a constriction at the top of the ureter,
where it intersects with the renal pelvis, which is the part of the kidney that collects the urine
before it starts down the ureter.  This can occur because of a constricting band of fibrous
(scar-like) tissue or from a crossing blood vessel.  Though it is generally present at birth,
sometimes it is so mild as to not cause a problem, but the obstruction may worsen with
time later in infancy or in childhood as a result of changing relationships of the structures of
the urinary tract and of surrounding tissues as growth occurs.   A band of tissue or blood
vessel near the ureter may impinge on the ureter with time and growth.    This is usually a
unilateral finding, but it can be bilateral, and it also is assoc…