Vitamin A deficiency in Pregnancy...2

Vitamin A deficiency in Pregnancy...2




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5...  Why Vitamin A is important during Pregnancy?
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy represents a major public health problem in developing countries. Anemia is a common consequence of VAD. We aimed to measure serum retinol concentrations of a sample of poor Egyptian mothers and correlate it with their Hb% and cord Hb%. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 healthy mothers and their healthy full term newborns. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected for CBC and measurement of serum retinol concentrations. Results. Forty-seven mothers (23.5%) had VAD and 50% were anemic. Mothers with VAD had a significantly lower mean Hb% and a significantly higher frequency of anemia (95.7%) compared to mothers without VAD (35.9%). The relative risk for anemia among mothers with VAD was 2.7 (CI = 2.12–3.3). Newborns of mothers with VAD had a significantly lower mean cord Hb% compared to newborns of mothers without VAD. Maternal serum retinol concentrations were positively correlated with maternal Hb% and cord Hb%. Conclusion. Maternal VAD during pregnancy among poor mothers is associated with maternal anemia and lower Hb% of newborns at birth. Vitamin A supplementation is highly recommended for this vulnerable group.

6...  Requirement of Vitamin A during Pregnancy
The requirements of vitamin A are increased during pregnancy. A daily intake of 800 μg retinol equivalents was recommended as a safe level of vitamin A for pregnant women . According to WHO, 7.8% of pregnant women in Africa have night blindness and 15.3% have low serum retinol concentrations . Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy is associated with increased maternal mortality  and increased infant mortality rates during the first year of life .
According to WHO, anemia globally affects 41.8% of pregnant women all over the world and 57.1% of pregnant women in Africa . Maternal anemia during pregnancy increases the maternal mortality  and has many adverse effects on fetal outcome including small for gestational age, premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery. Severe maternal anemia may be associated with stillbirth and neonatal deaths 
Vitamin A is known to play a role in hematopoiesis, and anemia is a common consequence of VAD.  Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy was found to improve maternal Hb%. The aim of the present study was to measure serum retinol concentrations of a cohort of poor Egyptian mothers and correlate it with their hemoglobin concentrations (Hb%) and cord Hb% of their respective newborns.

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